The uptake and utilization of carbon dioxide (CO2) is vital for the photosynthetic activities of plants. Without sufficient CO2 in the environment, the ability of plants to photosynthesize is severely affected. Plants absorb CO2 through openings in leaf tissues called stomata. CO2 entering through the stomata is stored in the intercellular spaces and begins to be reduced in the presence of light energy and water. This process accelerates with increasing CO2 concentration in the environment.

The number of stomata located between the upper tissues of plant leaves called epidermis differs on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves and this number varies according to the plant species. When CO2 drops to around 150 ppm, plants are unable to photosynthesize and begin to wither. When CO2 drops even further, to around 100 ppm, photosynthesis stops completely and plants die. This level is the lowest limit for plant life.

The ideal carbon dioxide levels for plants and their possible effects can be listed as follows:

  • 1200 ppm: Plants make the best growth.
  • 350 ppm: Natural value in air, no effect on plants.
  • 150 ppm: Photosynthesis stops and plants start to die.
  • 100 ppm: Plants die.

Carbon dioxide plays a critical role in the process of photosynthesis, in which plants use the energy of light to combine carbon dioxide and water to form sugars. These sugars are converted into complex compounds that are essential for plant growth. But when the CO2 supply is cut off or reduced, the plants cannot fully utilize the sun’s energy and their growth is retarded. Although the amount of CO2 in the air is only 0.03% (250-400 ppm), it can be lower in greenhouses in winter compared to the outside air. This can lead to reduced assimilation and yields.

Increasing CO2 levels in greenhouses can increase yields by up to 30%. Professional systems stand out as the best solution to meet CO2 needs in greenhouses. CO2 is obtained from the flue gas when natural gas and its derivatives are burned in specially designed boilers with the help of a burner. With the help of sensors in the greenhouse, the amount of CO2 needed is determined depending on the automation and fertilization is made through the dosing system. These systems optimize plant growth in greenhouses, contributing to a healthier and more efficient production process.

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