CO2 Dosing in Greenhouses: A Vital Element for Plants

Dosing carbon dioxide (CO2) in greenhouses is a critical process for the healthy growth and development of plants. In the process of photosynthesis, which is vital for plants, CO2 is one of the basic building blocks for energy production. Correctly regulating the CO2 level in the greenhouse environment is essential for plants to photosynthesize more efficiently and therefore grow faster and healthier.

CO2 Dosing Techniques

CO2 Fans and Detectors

CO2 fans distribute CO2 evenly inside the greenhouse, ensuring that all plants get the carbon dioxide they need. These fans optimize CO2 distribution and minimize energy use, especially in large greenhouses. CO2 detectors continuously measure the level of carbon dioxide in the greenhouse and help maintain ideal levels. These devices play a vital role in maintaining optimal conditions for plant health by enabling automatic adjustment of CO2 dosing systems.

Buffer Tanks and Nitrogen Generators

Buffer tanks ensure a balanced presence of CO2 and other gases in the greenhouse. These tanks help to keep the internal atmosphere of the greenhouse stable despite fluctuating external conditions. Nitrogen generators, on the other hand, provide essential nitrogen for plants. These generators extract nitrogen from the air and make it available to plants, reducing the need for fertilization.

Condensers (Economizers)

Condensers increase the efficiency of the energy used in the greenhouse. These devices save energy by reusing waste heat from the greenhouse heating and cooling systems. In addition to reducing energy costs, these systems also reduce the impact on the environment.

Application Examples

The implementation of CO2 dosing systems in various greenhouse projects is making noticeable differences in plant growth. For example, adjustments to a tomato greenhouse showed a marked improvement in the size and taste of tomatoes when CO2 levels were increased to optimal levels. Thanks to these technologies, high yields are achieved throughout the year.

  1. Tomato Greenhouses:
    • Flower formation occurred 9 days earlier in tomato greenhouses where CO2 fertilization was applied. This means that plants grow faster and healthier and accelerates the crop cycle.
  2. Cucumber, Pepper and Tomato Greenhouses:
    • Reducing the CO2 level from 350 ppm to 200 ppm can reduce yields by up to 40%, while increasing it to 750-1000 ppm resulted in the same yield increase. This suggests that CO2 level has a significant impact on plant yield.
  3. Red Beet, Carrot and Onion Greenhouses:
    • Increases in fresh produce weight of +19% for red beet, +9% for carrots and +13% for onions were observed if the CO2 level increased by about 25% and the temperature by 0.7-1.1 °C. This reveals positive effects of CO2 increase in certain types of vegetables.
  4. Potato and Bean Greenhouses:
    • By doubling the CO2 application, increases in yield were observed at normal growth temperature. However, with the increase in temperature, CO2 had no effect on product enhancement. This indicates that CO2 fertilization can have variable effects depending on temperature conditions.


The correct use of CO2 dosing in greenhouses is essential for plant health and crop productivity. Maintaining optimal CO2 levels in greenhouses using advanced technology supports sustainable agricultural practices and enables production in environmentally friendly ways. In this way, steps are being taken every day towards a greener and more abundant world.


Süleyman Demirel University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences

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